Waste to Energy via Incineration - Part 1 - LHV analysis
Updated: Jan 6, 2021
One of my business development fields is the waste to energy sector. I have developed extensive know-how in waste solutions for a cleaner society for the present and the future by converting waste into renewable and sustainable energy, district heating and high quality construction materials. There are many technologies available for conversion process ; thermal, biological and landfilling processes and some of these technologies are listed / shown in the diagram below.
The focus on this particular blog entry will be on "power generation via incineration", but I will publish future blog entries for other processes as well (especially biogas production via anaerobic digestion).
Incineration is a waste treatment process which involves the combustion of various burnable substances contained in the waste material and capturing the energy released during the combustion.
A typical municipal solid waste composition consists of ;
Film Plastics (Low density Polyethylene LDPE) - combustible
Dense Plastics (High Density Polyethylene HDPE, Polyethylene Terephthalate PET) - combustible
Ferrous materials - non-combustible
Non-Ferrous materials - non-combustible
Glass - non-combusitible
Textiles - combustible
Paper & Cardboard - combustible
Organic fraction (green waste) - combustible
Other fractions (combustible / non-combustible)
Ferrous, non-ferrous materials and glass are non combustable materials which may be recovered prior to the incineration process for re-cycling purposes.
The idea in an incineration plant is to burn the solid waste, produce heat, transfer this heat to water to produce various pressure staged steam and then utilize this steam in a steam turbine to produce electricty.
The percentage distribution of the above materials in a certain waste sample together with the moisture content of the waste plays a key role in defining the LHV (lower heating value) of the fuel.. waste in this case..
A study was made as referenced in (1) to analyze the waste characteristics of Istanbul city and the results of this study are summarized below.
Samples were collected from various different regions of Istanbul city as seen in Figure (3) below.
The percentage composition for the Anatolian Side of Istanbul can be seen in Table (2) below,
The percentage composition for the European Side of Istanbul can be seen in Table (3) below,
The moisture content of the Istanbul MSW was analysed as shown in Table (4) below ;
The LHV (lower heating value) of the Istanbul MSW was calculated and the results can be seen in Figure (5) below ;
Showing an avarage of 1435 kcal / kg. This value will be used for heat and electrical power calculations for future studies. My next blog entries will proceed from this point on to show thermal calculations for electrical power generation. So keep watching and stay healthy.
Reference used in the blog entry :
(1) Senol Yildiz, Cevat Yaman, Goksel Demir, Kurtulus Ozcan, Asli Coban, Hatice Eser Okten, Kadir Sezer and Sami Goren (2012) "Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste of Istanbul, Turkey", Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy (Vol.32, No.3) pp. 734 - 739